With technological improvements in topography and corneal measurement devices it has become easier for eye doctors to confirm keratoconus and suggest better methods of treatment.
Keratoconus can often be difficult to detect in its earliest stages as vision is only slightly affected. One early warning sign for eye doctors occurs if patients are having difficulty seeing well with even the best possible glasses prescription.
Other clinical observations that help in confirming keratoconus include corneal stromal thinning, iron deposits within the epithelial basement membrane, and breaks in the Bowman’s layer of the cornea. These can all be observed using an instrument known as a slit lamp.
Other instruments that can be used in confirming keratoconus include retinoscopes and keratometers. Both of these can show indications of an irregularly shaped cornea that helps in confirming keratoconus.
Ultrasound and other forms of pachymetry are certainly useful in confirming keratoconus by measuring the amount of corneal thinning in patients suspected of keratoconus. Some instruments, such as the Bausch and Lomb Orbscan, combine a variety of these techniques to provide accurate methods of confirming keratoconus.